Thursday, May 21, 2020
Due to the high level of interaction between countries in our interconnected world of today, diplomatic offices, such as embassies and consulates, are needed in each country to aid in and allow such interactions to occur. Ambassadors are their countrys government representatives abroad in matters between the two countries. These offices also provide services for potential emigrants and international travelers. Although the terms embassy and consulate are often used interchangeably, the two are different. Definition of an Embassy An embassy is larger and more important than a consulate and is described as a permanent diplomatic mission, which is generally located in a countrys capital city. For example, the United States Embassy in Canada is located in Ottawa, Ontario. Capital cities such as Ottawa, Washington, D.C., and London are home to nearly 200 embassies each. An embassy is responsible for representing the home country, for handling major diplomatic issues (such as negotiations), and for preserving the rights of its citizens abroad. The ambassador is the highest official in the embassy and acts as the chief diplomat and spokesperson for the home government. Ambassadors are typically appointed by the highest level of the home government. In the United States, ambassadors are appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate. Usually, if a country recognizes another as being sovereign, an embassy is established to maintain foreign relations and provide assistance to traveling citizens. Embassy vs Consulate By contrast, a consulate is a smaller version of an embassy and is generally located in the larger tourist cities of a country, but not the capital. In Germany, for instance, the U.S. consulates are in cities such as Frankfurt, Hamburg, and Munich, but not in the capital city of Berlin. The embassy is located in Berlin. Consulates (and their chief diplomat, the consul) handle minor diplomatic issues such as issuing visas, aiding in trade relationships, and taking care of migrants, tourists, and expatriates. In addition, the United States has Virtual Presence Posts (VPPs) to assist people around the world in learning about the United States and the areas in which the VPP is focused. These were created so that the United States could have a presence in important areas without physically being there. The areas with the VPPs do not have permanent offices and staff and are run from other embassies. Some examples of VPPs include the VPP Santa Cruz in Bolivia, the VPP Nunavut in Canada, and the VPP Chelyabinsk in Russia. There are about 50 VPPs worldwide. Special Cases Though it might sound simple that consulates are in larger tourist cities and embassies are in capital cities, this is not the case with every instance in the world. Jerusalem One such unique case is Jerusalem. Though it is the capital and largest city in Israel, no country had its embassy there until President Donald Trump decided to move the U.S. Embassy there in 2018. Instead, most of Israels embassies are in Tel Aviv because most of the international community does not recognize Jerusalem as the capital. Tel Aviv is identified as the capital because it was the temporary capital of Israel during the Arab blockade of Jerusalem in 1948. Jerusalem remains home to many consulates. Taiwan Few countries have an official embassy in Taiwan to establish representation due to the uncertainty of Taiwans political status with regard to mainland China, the Peoples Republic of China. As such, the United States, the United Kingdom, and many other countries do not recognize Taiwan as independent because it is claimed by the PRC. Instead, the United States and the United Kingdom have unofficial representative offices in Taipei that can handle matters such as issuing visas and passports, providing assistance to foreign citizens, trade, and maintaining cultural and economic relationships. The American Institute in Taiwan is the private organization representing the United States in Taiwan, and the British Trade and Cultural Office fulfills the same mission for the United Kingdom there. Kosovo Not every foreign country recognizes Kosovo as independent (as of late 2017, 114 do), and just 22 have established embassies in its capital of Pristina. There are several other consulates and other diplomatic posts in the country as well. It has 26 embassies abroad and 14 consulates. Former British Empire The member countries of the Commonwealth of Nations (mostly former British territories) do not exchange ambassadors but instead, use the office of high commissioner between member countries. Mexican Consulates Mexico is distinct in that its consulates are not all confined to large tourist cities, as is the case with the consulates of many other countries. For example, although there are consulates in the small border towns of Douglas and Nogales, Arizona, and Calexico, California, there are also many consulates in cities farther from the border, such as Omaha, Nebraska. In the United States and Canada, there are currently 57 Mexican consulates. The Mexican Embassies are located in Washington, D.C., and Ottawa. Countries Without U.S. Diplomatic Relations Though the United States has strong diplomatic ties to many foreign nations, there are four with which it does not currently work. These are Bhutan, Iran, Syria, and North Korea. For Bhutan, the two countries never established formal relations, and Syrian relations were suspended in 2012 after the war started there. However, the U.S. is able to maintain varying levels of informal contact with each of these nations by using its own embassies in nearby countries or through representation by other foreign governments. However foreign representation or diplomatic relationships occur, they are important in world politics for traveling citizens, as well as for the economic and cultural matters that result when two nations have such interactions.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Socrates, in his conviction from the Athenian jury, was both innocent and guilty as charged. In PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s Five Dialogues, accounts of events ranging from just prior to SocratesÃ¢â¬â¢ entry into the courthouse up until his mouthful of hemlock, both points are represented. SocratesÃ¢â¬â¢ in dealing with moral law was not guilty of the crimes he was accused of by Meletus. Socrates was only guilty as charged because his peers had concluded him as such. The laws didnÃ¢â¬â¢t find Socrates guilty; Socrates was guilty because his jurors enforced the laws. The law couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t enforce itself. Socrates was accused of corrupting AthensÃ¢â¬â¢ youth, not believing in the gods of the city and creating his own gods. In the Euthyphro, Socrates defends himself against theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦If it were the exact definition, only Euthyphro would be pious. He said that Euthyphro did not understand the difference between a definition and an example. Next, Euthyphro says that pi ety is found in things that are dear to the gods (7a). Socrates again rejected EuthyphroÃ¢â¬â¢s definition of piety. The Greek gods were anthropomorphic; therefore, another may despise what would be dear to one god. This definition offered was not distinct. Finally, Euthyphro said that what is pious is what loved by the gods (9e). However, Euthyphro canÃ¢â¬â¢t answer whether something is pious because it is loved or it is loved because it is pious. He canÃ¢â¬â¢t conceive the difference between cause and effect. It is in the Euthyphro that Socrates begins his defense of his actions and principles to the reader. A priest canÃ¢â¬â¢t give him a concise answer as to what is religious; therefore, how can anyone else, especially one less religiously guided than a priest, accuse him of blasphemous actions? In the Apology, Socrates aimed to do three things: defend his ideas and principles, continue to teach those who will open their mind and state that he knew regardless of what he said he was aware that all five hundred and one jurors knew who he was and disliked him. Socrates was well aware of the fact that he had made multiple enemies, he knew that the politicians, poets, rich and craftsmen allShow MoreRelatedSocrates and Civil Obecience or Disobedience1538 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesEssay: A Discussion on whether or not I believe that SocratesÃ¢â¬â¢ views in the Crito contradict his views expressed in the Apology. My position: I am in disagreement with this statement and my analysis, based on contextual evidence, is as follows: Although I could argue the question posited above from either position, as many have done before and, as many will continue to do after me, I do not believe that Socrates waivers in his beliefs between the two accounts according to Plato. Read MoreHindi Nibandh on Advantages of Mobile and Disadvantage17790 Words Ã |Ã 72 PagesShroff, but independently of him, a journalist named Philip Spratt was writing a series of essays in favour of free enterprise. Spratt was a Cambridge communist who was sent by the party in 1920s to foment revolution in the subcontinent. Detected in the act, he spent many years in an Indian jail. The books he read in the prison, and his marriage to an Indian woman afterwards, inspired a steady move rightwards. By the 1950s, he was editing a pro-American weekly from Bangalore, called MysIndia. ThereRead MoreTop 1 Cause for Project Failure65023 Words Ã |Ã 261 Pagespensions HR functions. A decision was made to combine these functions into a shared serv ice (SSC). A company was created that would eventually take delivery of and manage this combined service. The Research bodies were very reluctant to comply with a one size fits all arrangement. (There were research functions as diverse as Arts to Engineering and Environment to Social Sciences).So we had from the beginning poor Stakeholder ownership. Involvement was varied from truculant to compliantRead MoreLogical Reasoning189930 Words Ã |Ã 760 PagesNoncommercial You may not use this work for commercial purposes (for example, by inserting passages into a book that is sold to students). (3) No Derivative Works You may not alter, transform, or build upon this work. An earlier version of the book was published by Wadsworth Publishing Company, Belmont, California USA in 1993 with ISBN number 0-534-17688-7. When Wadsworth decided no longer to print the book, they returned their publishing rights to the original author, Bradley Dowden. The currentRead MoreDeveloping Management Skills404131 Words Ã |Ã 1617 PagesPermissions Department, One Lake Street, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458. Many of the designations by manufacturers and seller to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this book, and the publisher was aware of a trademark claim, the designations have been printed in initial caps or all caps. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Whetten, David A. (David Allred) Developing management skills /David A. Whetten, Kim S. Cameron.Ã¢â¬â8th edRead MoreCritical Thinking - Literature Review12815 Words Ã |Ã 52 Pagesacademic strands have developed different approaches to defining critical thinking that reflect their respective concerns. Each of these approaches is explored more fully below. CRITICAL THINKING 5 The philosophical approach. The writings of Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, and more recently, Matthew Lipman and Richard Paul, exemplify the philosophical approach. This approach focuses on the hypothetical critical thinker, enumerating the qualities and characteristics of this person rather than the
To a MouseÃ¢â¬ - Robert Burns (Handout) Let life run its course The poem denotes the narrator of the poem is plugging his field when he cuts through a mouse nest. The poet shows regret and apologizes to the mouse before he goes on a tangent which reveals the deeper meaning of the poem. The connotation is that in life, we plan and do everything to make the future sweet Just like a mouse, yet luck can come and ruin it in one second. We will write a custom essay sample on Romanticism Analysis or any similar topic only for you Order Now Life is unpredictable, and while preparing for the unpredictable future we arenÃ¢â¬â¢t enjoying the present moment Ã¢â¬â which the souse seems to be able to do. The narrator reminisces on Ã¢â¬Ëprospects drearyÃ¢â¬â¢, I. E. Bad events that have happened in the past which in some ways prevent him from moving on. Furthermore, some say that he is very fearful of the future and that these two reasons do not allow him to enjoy the present. He is also hinting that we Ã¢â¬ËhumansÃ¢â¬â¢ arenÃ¢â¬â¢t very empathic or sympathetic towards animals and nature like this mouse, but both species prepare for the future hoping for nothing to affect our smooth lives. He asks, so what if the mouse steals our corn it still has to survive Ã¢â¬â and this is the same or humans: so why are we so apart? Burns is talking about dreams and how thereÃ¢â¬â¢s no difference between miceÃ¢â¬â¢s dream or a manÃ¢â¬â¢s dream. HeÃ¢â¬â¢s saying that dreams are useless that they only leave you in pain and grief. Ã¢â¬Å"The LambÃ¢â¬ - Blake (712) Lamb represents goodness kindness and Jesus The poem begins with the question, Ã¢â¬Å"Little Lamb, who made thee? Ã¢â¬ The speaker, a child, asks the lamb about its origins: how it came into being, how it acquired its particular manner of feeding, its Ã¢â¬Å"clothingÃ¢â¬ of wool, its Ã¢â¬Å"tender voice. In the next Tanta, the speaker attempts a riddling answer to his own question: the lamb was made by one who Ã¢â¬Å"calls himself a Lamb,Ã¢â¬ one who resembles in his gentleness both the child and the lamb. The poem ends with the child bestowing a blessing on the lamb. Ã¢â¬Å"The TigerÃ¢â¬ - Blake (712) Good and evil come from the same source? Did lamb creator create tiger? The poem begins with the speaker asking a fearsome tiger what kind of divine being could have created it: Ã¢â¬Å"What immortal hand or eye/ Could frame they fearful symmetry? Ã¢â¬ Each subsequent stanza contains further questions, all of which refine this first one. From what part of the cosmos could the tigerÃ¢â¬â¢s fiery eyes have come, and who would have dared to handle that fire? The speaker wonders how, once that horrible heart Ã¢â¬Å"began to beat,Ã¢â¬ its creator would have had the courage to continue the Job. Comparing the creator to a blacksmith, he ponders about the anvil and the furnace that the project would have required and the smith who could have wielded them. And when the Job was done, the speaker wonders, how would the creator have felt? Ã¢â¬Å"Did he smile his work to see? Ã¢â¬ Could this possibly be the same being who made the lamb? The world s too much with UsÃ¢â¬ - Wordsmith (733) Man is so out of tune with nature and so obsessed with the materialistic things in life. The writer would rather be pagan than suffer seeing how man is attached. At least Pagans are intact with nature as he is very angry with man. Ã¢â¬Å"Chimney SweeperÃ¢â¬ - Blake (Handout) Argument against child exploitation The poem Ã¢â¬Å"The Chimn ey Sweeper,Ã¢â¬ in both Songs of Innocence and Songs of Experience, protests the living conditions, working conditions, and the overall treatment of young chimney sweeps in the cities of England. Little boy soothing other ho is crying due to loss of hair as someone shaved it. No hair no dirt no problem innocent view. Having a dream about heaven that if he does his duty then all will be alright and he will move to heaven Ã¢â¬Å"LondonÃ¢â¬ - Blake Harsh conditions of England through the French Revolution The poem was published during the upheavals of the French Revolution, and the city of London was suffering political and social unrest, due to the marked social and working inequalities of the time. An understandably nervous government had responded by introducing restrictions on the freedom of speech and the manipulation f foreign mercenaries. The City of London was a town that was shackled to landlords and owners that controlled and demeaned the majority of the lower and middle classes. Within the poem that bears the cityÃ¢â¬â¢s name, Blake describes 18th century London as a conurbation filled with people who understood, with depressing wisdom, both the hopelessness and misery of their situation. The Sick RoseÃ¢â¬ - Blake (714) Love destroyed by Jealousy possessiveness Alternatively the poem may suggest that all beauty is susceptible to destruction or itself has the power to destroy. It is a reminder that there is a good and evil side to all things Ã¢â¬â love can be both Joyful and painful, and all life is proceeded by death. Ã¢â¬Å"l Wandered Lonely as a CloudÃ¢â¬ - William Wordsmith (735) The memory of daffodils remains imprinted in the tellers mind as it is beautif ul The speaker says that, wandering like a cloud floating above hills and valleys, he encountered a field of daffodils beside a lake. The dancing, fluttering flowers stretched endlessly along the shore, and though the waves of the lake danced beside the flowers, the daffodils outdid the water in glee. The speaker says that a poet could not help but be happy in such a Joyful company of flowers. He says that he stared and stared, but did not realize what wealth the scene would bring him. For now, whenever he feels Ã¢â¬Å"vacantÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"pensive,Ã¢â¬ the memory flashes upon Ã¢â¬Å"that inward eye / That is the bliss of solitude,Ã¢â¬ and his heart fills with pleasure, Ã¢â¬Å"and dances with the daffodils. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Solitary ReaperÃ¢â¬ - Headwords (Handout) Girl speaking in dialect. Although canÃ¢â¬â¢t understand still hears songs playing in his head for which he is grateful even as he hears no more Ã¢â¬Å"The Solitary ReaperÃ¢â¬ begins tit the speaker instructing us to look upon Ã¢â¬Å"Yon solitary Highland LassÃ¢â¬ who is Ã¢â¬Å"Reaping and singing by herselfÃ¢â¬ . Thrilled by her song, the speaker compares the girl to a nightingale whose Ã¢â¬Å"melancholy strainÃ¢â¬ welcomes Ã¢â¬Å"weary bands / Of travelersÃ¢â¬ to Ã¢â¬Å"some shady haunt, / Among Arabian sandsÃ¢â¬ . Yet he does not understand the words of her song (presumably they are in the Scottish Gaelic language), and impatiently cries, Ã¢â¬Å"Will no one tell me what she sings? He wonders if the subject is of Ã¢â¬Å"battles long agoÃ¢â¬ or of commonplace and universal things (Ã¢â¬Å"familiar matters of to-dayÃ¢â¬ ), reaps Ã¢â¬Å"some natural sorrow, loss, or pain. Ã¢â¬ Then he dismisses his own musings Ã¢â¬Å"Whatever the theme,Ã¢â¬ he says, Ã¢â¬Å"the Maiden sang / As if he r song could have no endingÃ¢â¬ -and refocuses his attention on the song. He listens, Ã¢â¬Å"motionless and stillÃ¢â¬ , before finally mounting the hill and leaving the solitary reaper, still singing, behind. Though his ears cannot hear the song anymore, the sound of the Highland LassÃ¢â¬â¢s music will forever be a fresh and evocative memory in his heart. The Rime of the Ancient MarinerÃ¢â¬ - Coleridge Mariner has to tell a story- when he has an agony feels he must let it out by telling Tory. First he tells it to wedding guests- admits to shooting albatross for no reason and that nature will punish him, the albatross hangs around his neck as a burden until he blesses the sea creatures and continues towards penitence for remorse. Eventually it falls off. The wedding guests learn that all creatures regardless of size great and small, are made equal in Gods eyes and that none is to harm one over the other. Ã¢â¬Å"Ode to the West WindÃ¢â¬ - M. Shelley Wind is both a destroyer and preserver. West Wind Blows leaves off tree only to cover up seeds to allow them to grow. Spring Wind Ã¢â¬Å"CommandingÃ¢â¬ - Shelley (782) Traveler tells story of irony that he witnesses in the desert. A broken statue that has inscribed king of kings, look on my works, but in reality there is nothing but vast desert surrounding him. Egyptian attempt towards eternal life. Ã¢â¬Å"Bright Star WSDL I Were Steadfast As thou ArtÃ¢â¬ - Keats (804) Man addressing star. He longs to be like the star as it is steady and unchanging. But does not want to resemble the loneliness, lone splendor and doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to look down on life by himself. Ode on a Grecian UrnÃ¢â¬ - Keats (799) Images inscribed onto urn prove to be story. His imagination wonders and he embraces a love so close to kissing the women but would rather hold back in order to always have that wondrous feeling of what it would feel like. Beauty and truth are only things that actually last for ever. Ã¢â¬Å"When I have fears that I may cease to beÃ¢â¬ - Keats (803) Keats describes fears of death through what the narrator wishes to accomplish through life. He fears death because he will miss the great things such as love, fame, and writing. This poem reflects Keats worst fears; to die too soonÃ¢â¬ When I have fears hat I may cease to beÃ¢â¬ . The speaker in Keats poem actually reflects what is going on in KeatsÃ¢â¬â¢ mindÃ¢â¬ ¦ Keats knew that he will die too soon because of his disease, and what hurts him the most is not being able to write his poems which will lead him to fame, and the loss of his beloved oneÃ¢â¬ ¦ Keats recognizes the fact that death is inevitable but he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to die before he writes his poemsÃ¢â¬ ¦ And before his Ã¢â¬Å"pen has gleaned my teeming brainÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ ¦ He is afraid that he will never be able to look at his Ã¢â¬Å"fair creature of an hourÃ¢â¬ . How to cite Romanticism Analysis, Papers
Saturday, April 25, 2020
King Charles V Essay During the period of the 15th to 16th centuries, also know as The Beginning of Early Modern Times, strong central governments arose throughout Europe.The rulers of this period have since been coined new monarchs, due to the fact that they encouraged trade, overseas expansion, and made attempts to relieve social distress, unlike their predecessors.King Charles V of Spain was the epitome of what the new monarchies during the 15th and 16th centuries were. Due to lineage, Charles V was the heir of both the royal throne of Spain and the Hapsburg dukedom.He became the King of the Spanish Empire and the Hapsburg territories, which included Austria and Hungary, along with becoming the Holy Roman Emperor.However, holding the land meant nothing to the citizens because he was considered to be an outsider by many, due to the idea that he had been raised in Law Countries and he had brought a large Flemish support with him.Also, because of this dislike, many revolts were brought against, althoug h they were all eventually put down. It is easy to say that Charles was the epitome of new monarch because of the vast territorial holdings that he amassed which required him to spend almost 2/3 of his 40-year reign defending.These holdings included most of Continental Europe west of the Balkans and Poland, except for France. Charles V represents the new monarchs in a number of ways.He had a very strong desire to centralize his government, like the other rulers termed as new monarchs.Charles had captured numerous lands, so it was almost impossible for him to manage all them alone.During the time in which he was away from his throne, he relied on an administrator named Francisco de los Cobos.He was also responsible for the formation of two types of councils.One assumed responsibility of controlling the territories that were taking over during his expansion quests in his empire, and the other was in ch
Wednesday, March 18, 2020
Theme Analysis of The Fellowship of the Ring by JRR Tolkien essays The Fellowship of the Ring, by J.R.R. Tolkien, is the first book in the fantasy-based trilogy of the Lord of the Rings. The book begins with Bilbo Baggins celebrating his one hundred and eleventh birthday. After his party, he then decides to leave everything behind and join a Fellowship, which has a task of destroying the Ruling Ring, which will give Supreme Power to whoever has possession of it. Just before he leaves, Gandalf asks Bilbo for this ring. Due to the power in which the ring possesses while the ring is in his possession, he does not want to give it up. The novel ends with the destruction of the Fellowship due to the power in which the ring contains. One of the prime facts of the Middle Earth is power. Power is not neutral, but is always evil. It gives wicked the chance to dominate. The good is corrupting and inescapable (Levitin 575). This is shown repeatedly throughout the novel, from when Bilbo gives up the ring, to when Boromir tries to take the ring, and finally, to seeing the control that the ring has over Frodo. One incident in the book, which corresponds with how power is evil, would be when Bilbo had to give up the Ring. The ring is very powerful. The power is so enticing that Bilbo is very weary to give up that ring. When Gandalf asks Bilbo if he wishes to give up the ring, Bilbo seems unsure saying yes and no. When it came to having to give it up he didn't like parting with it at all and didn't see why he should have to (Tolkien 55). Due to the power in which Bilbo feels that the ring had given him, he doesn't want to part with it. By no means does Bilbo want to use the power in an evil manner to dominate all. It is just the thought of power itself that causes this greed to come over him. Although Bilbo in general is a good character, the power of ring corrupts his ways, showing his thirst for power, which he deserves. Another incident, which portrays this corruption of goodn ...
Sunday, March 1, 2020
Edward Bernays, Father of Public Relations and Propaganda Edward Bernays was an American business consultant who is widely regarded as having created the modern profession of public relations with his groundbreaking campaigns of the 1920s. Bernays attained clients among major corporations and became known for boosting their business by causing changes in public opinion. Advertising was already commonplace by the early 20th century. But what Bernays did with his campaigns was significantly different, as he didnt openly seek to promote a particular product the way a typical ad campaign would. Instead, when hired by a company, Bernays would set out to change the opinions of the general public, creating demand which would indirectly boost the fortunes of a particular product. Fast Facts: Edward Bernays Born: November 22, 1891 in Vienna AustriaDied: March 9, 1995 in Cambridge, MassachusettsParents: Ely Bernays and Anna FreudSpouse: Doris Fleishman (married 1922)Education: Cornell UniversityNotable Published Works: Crystallizing Public Opinion (1923),Ã PropagandaÃ (1928),Ã Public RelationsÃ (1945),Ã The Engineering of ConsentÃ (1955)Famous Quote: Whatever of social importance is done today, whether in politics, finance, manufacture, agriculture, charity, education, or other fields, must be done with the help of propaganda. (from his 1928 book Propaganda) Some of Bernays public relations campaigns failed, but some were so successful that he was able to create a thriving business. And, making no secret of his family relationship to Sigmund Freud- he was the nephew of the pioneering psychoanalyst- his work had the veneer of scientific respectability. Bernays was often portrayed as the father of propaganda, a title he did not mind. He maintained that propaganda was a laudable and necessary component of democratic government. Early Life Edward L. Bernays was born on November 22, 1891, in Vienna, Austria. His family emigrated to the United States a year later, and his father became a successful grain merchant on the New York commodity exchanges. His mother, Anna Freud, was the younger sister of Sigmund Freud. Bernays did not grow up in contact with Freud directly, though as a young man he did visit him. Its unclear how much Freud influenced his work in the publicity business, but Bernays was never shy about the connection and it no doubt helped him attract clients. After growing up in Manhattan, Bernays attended Cornell University. It was his fathers idea, as he believed his son would also enter the grain business and a degree from Cornells prestigious agriculture program would be helpful. Bernays was an outsider at Cornell, which was largely attended by the sons of farming families. Unhappy with the career path chosen for him, he graduated from Cornell intent on becoming a journalist. Back in Manhattan, he became the editor of a medical journal. Early Career His position at the Medical Review of Reviews led to his first foray into public relations. He heard that an actor wanted to produce a play that was controversial, as it dealt with the subject of venereal disease. Bernays offered to help and essentially turned the play into a cause, and a success, by creating what he called the Sociological Fund Committee, which enlisted notable citizens to praise the play. After that first experience, Bernays began working as a press agent and built a thriving business. During World War I he was rejected for military service due to his poor vision, but he offered his public relations services to the U.S. government. When he joined the governments Committee of Public Information, he enlisted American companies doing business overseas to distribute literature about Americas reasons for entering the war. After the end of the war, Bernays traveled to Paris as part of a government public relations team at the Paris Peace Conference. The trip went badly for Bernays, who found himself in conflict with other officials. Despite that, he came away having learned a valuable lesson, which was that wartime work changing public opinion on a grand scale could have civilian applications. Noteworthy Campaigns Following the war, Bernays continued in the public relations business, seeking out major clients. An early triumph was a project for President Calvin Coolidge, who projected a stern and humorless image. Bernays arranged for performers, including Al Jolson, to visit Coolidge at the White House. Coolidge was portrayed in the press as having fun, and weeks later he won the election of 1924. Bernays, of course, took credit for changing the publics perception of Coolidge. One of the most famous Bernays campaigns was while working for the American Tobacco Company in the late 1920s. Smoking had caught on among American women in the years following World War I, but the habit carried a stigma and only a fraction of Americans found it acceptable for women to smoke, especially in public. Bernays began by spreading the idea, through various means, that smoking was an alternative to candy and desserts and that tobacco helped people lose weight. He followed that up in 1929 with something more audacious: spreading the idea that cigarettes meant freedom. Bernays had gotten the idea from consulting with a New York psychoanalyst who happened to be a disciple of his uncle, Dr. Freud. Bernays was informed that women of the late 1920s were seeking freedom, and smoking represented that freedom. To find a way to convey that concept to the public, Bernays hit upon the stunt of having young women smoke cigarettes while strolling in the annual Easter Sunday parade on Fifth Avenue in New York City. Scene at 1929 Freedom Torches event arranged by Edward Bernays. Ã Getty Images The event was carefully organized and essentially scripted. Debutantes were recruited to be the smokers, and they were carefully positioned near particular landmarks, such as St. Patricks Cathedral. Bernays even arranged for a photographer to shoot images just in case any newspaper photographers missed the shot. The next day, the New York Times published a story on the annual Easter celebrations and a sub-headline on page one read: Group of Girls Puff at Cigarettes as a Gesture of Freedom. The article noted about a dozen young women strolled back and forth near St. Patricks Cathedral, ostentatiously smoking cigarettes. When interviewed, the women said the cigarettes were torches of freedom that were lighting the way to the day when women would smoke on the street as casually as men. The tobacco company was happy with the results, as sales to women accelerated. A wildly successful campaign was devised by Bernays for a longtime client, Procter Gamble for its Ivory Soap brand. Bernays devised a way of making children like soap by initiating soap carving contests. Children (and adults, too) were encouraged to whittle bars of Ivory and the contests became a national fad. A newspaper article in 1929 about the companys fifth annual soap sculpture contest mentioned that $1,675 in prize money was being awarded, and many contestants were adults and even professional artists. The contests continued for decades (and instructions for soap sculpture are still part of Procter Gamble promotions). Influential Author Bernays had started in public relations as a press agent for various performers, but by the 1920s he saw himself as a strategist who was elevating the entire business of public relations into a profession. He preached his theories on shaping public opinion at university lectures and also published books, including Crystallizing Public Opinion (1923) and Propaganda (1928). He later wrote memoirs of his career. His books were influential, and generations of public relations professionals have referred to them. Bernays, however, came in for criticism. He was denounced by the magazine Editor and Publisher as the young Machiavelli of our time, and he was often criticized for operating in deceptive ways. Legacy Bernays has been widely regarded as a pioneer in the field of public relations, and many of his techniques have become commonplace. For instance, the Bernays practice of forming interest groups to advocate for something is reflected daily in the commentators on cable television who represent interest groups and think tanks that seem to exist to confer respectability. Often speaking out in retirement, Bernays, who lived to the age of 103 and died in 1995, was often critical of those who seemed to be his heirs. He told the New York Times, in an interview conducted in honor of his 100th birthday, that any dope, any nitwit, any idiot, can call him or herself a public relations practitioner. However, he said he would be happy to be called the father of public relations when the field is taken seriously, like law or architecture. Sources: Edward L. Bernays. Encyclopedia of World Biography, 2nd ed., vol. 2, Gale, 2004, pp. 211-212. Gale Virtual Reference Library.Bernays, Edward L. The Scribner Encyclopedia of American Lives, edited by Kenneth T. Jackson, et al., vol. 4: 1994-1996, Charles Scribners Sons, 2001, pp. 32-34. Gale Virtual Reference Library.
Friday, February 14, 2020
35 Years for Wikileaks - Essay Example Hence, the prosecution awarded him a severe punishment of imprisonment, perhaps the longest period of confinement. Analyzing this punishment to a soldier in uniform is an inspiration and lesson for every military officer. Although it is an American issue, the impact of this incident on other countries cannot be ignored. The given punishment clearly indicates the importance of maintaining the secrets military activities. Thus, the other nations also understand how cruel and unethical activities were carried out by the US military. It also paves a way to protest against such operations as they cannot justify and defend their heinous act of murdering. Moreover, it points out the world about an insecure life of a soldier from every corner. This type of punishment and activities by the court martial can make man critical minded. Firstly, how could an individual like Bradley Manning in military is offered with all details of military activities? Does it reveal the weakness of military system in preserving documents and information? Secondly, is it a drama being played to reveal the power of the military to scare rival nations about the aftermaths of their illegal activities? Lastly, if such kinds of activities are undertaken what is expected in the future? Would the nest generation be fortunate to know what harmony is? Simpson, I & Roshan, M. (Aug 21, 2013). U.S. soldier Manning gets 35 years for passing documents to WikiLeaks. Reuters. Retrieved from